Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)
Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese)
(English: “Unity in Diversity”)
National ideologyPancasila[1][2]
Anthem: Indonesia Raya
(English: “Great Indonesia”

and largest city
6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E
Official language
and national language
Regional languages
Over 700 languages[3]
Ethnic groups

Over 300 ethnic groups[4]
Demonym Indonesian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
Joko Widodo
Jusuf Kalla
Bambang Soesatyo
Muhammad Hatta Ali
Legislature People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR)
Regional Representative Council (DPD)
People’s Representative Council (DPR)
2nd century
15th century
20 March 1602
1 January 1800
9 March 1942
17 August 1945
27 December 1949
• Unitary republic
17 August 1950
• Land
1,904,569[6] km2(735,358 sq mi) (14th)
• 2016 estimate
• 2010 census
237,641,326[8] (4th)
• Density
138/km2 (357.4/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$3.492 trillion[9] (7th)
• Per capita
$13,162[9] (96th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$1.075 trillion[9] (16th)
• Per capita
$4,052[9] (114th)
Gini (2017) Negative increase 39.5[10]
HDI (2017) Increase 0.694[10]
medium · 116th
Currency Indonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
Time zone UTC+7 to +9 (various)
Date format DD/MM/YYYY
Driving side left
Calling code +62
ISO 3166 code ID
Internet TLD .id

Indonesia (/ˌɪndəˈnʒə/ (About this soundlisten) IN-də-NEE-zhə/-ziə/ -zee-əIndonesian[ɪndoneˈsia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [rɛpublik ɪndoneˈsia]),[lacks stress] is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world’s largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands,[11] and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area.[12] With over 261 million people, it is the world’s 4th most populous countryJava, the world’s most populous island,[13] contains more than half of the country’s population.

The sovereign state is a presidentialconstitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Jakarta, the country’s capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New GuineaEast Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include SingaporeVietnam, the PhilippinesAustraliaPalau, and India‘s Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.[14] The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gastincopper and goldAgriculturemainly produces ricepalm oilteacoffeecacaomedicinal plantsspices and rubber.[15] Indonesia’s major trading partners are ChinaUnited StatesJapan, Singapore and India.[16]

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with Chinese dynasties and Indian kingdoms. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam,[17][18] while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Indonesia experienced a long period of Dutch colonialism that started from Amboina and Batavia, eventually covering all of the archipelago including Timor and Western New Guinea, and at times interrupted by PortugueseFrench and British rule. During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia’s national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (“Unity in Diversity” literally, “many, yet one”), articulates the diversity that shapes the country.